Vitamin B12 is one of the B-complex vitamins that are essential for good health. The body uses it to manufacture red blood cells, nerve cells, and DNA, and vitamin B12 is important to metabolism and cardiovascular health. Like many other vitamins, B12 is not manufactured by the body, which means people must get it from food or supplements. Consuming inadequate amounts of this important vitamin, or problems with its absorption, can lead to a vitamin B12 deficiency, a condition that is somewhat common, especially among older people. Read on to learn about five signs and symptoms of deficiency.
One of the first signs of vitamin B12 deficiency is body weakness, a natural consequence of reduced levels of red blood cells. Because weakness is a symptom of a variety of physical conditions, people should consult with a medical professional to rule out possibilities.
2. Gastrointestinal Disorders
Certain gastrointestinal disorders like colitis, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and leaky gut syndrome can affect absorption of vitamin B-12. Supplements and B-12 shots can help prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in people with these conditions.
3. Vision Loss
Low levels of vitamin B12 can have a negative effect on the optic nerve, but supplements can help. A study from Japan examining 28 patients with glaucoma showed improvements with a daily dose of 1500 mcg of vitamin B12 over five years. The participants receiving B12 experienced reduced peripheral vision loss, more stable visual acuity, and better control over eye fluid pressure than participants that did not receive vitamin B12.
4. Shortness of Breath
Failure to absorb vitamin B12 can result in a reduction of red blood cells that can lead to a condition called pernicious anemia. Symptoms of this condition include shortness of breath and fatigue.
5. Memory Loss
Vitamin B12 deficiency can impact brain function, causing symptoms like disorientation, difficulty thinking, and memory loss. Research shows supplements can help.
A study from Australian National University found that older adults who received supplements containing vitamin B12 and folic acid over two years experienced better results on tests for short-term and long-term memory than participants who did not receive the supplements. Researchers speculated that results might be due to lower levels of homocysteine, an amino acid linked to poor cognitive function.
Sources of Vitamin B12
Natural food sources of B12 all come from animal products and good options include clams, beef, turkey, oysters, chicken, trout, and salmon. People who are vegan, vegetarian, or those with absorption issues can benefit from foods fortified with synthetic B12 or B12 supplements.
People need vitamin B12 to stay healthy, but according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, about 23 percent of adults above the age of 49 have some level of deficiency. People who are concerned about vitamin B12 deficiency should visit a medical professional for a blood test and treatment options.